founded the theological journal Communio with Hans Urs von
Balthasar, Henri de Lubac and others. Communio, now published in
seventeen editions (German, English, Spanish and many others), has
become one of the most important journals of Catholic thought.
March 1977 Ratzinger was named archbishop of Munich and Freising and in
the consistory that June was named a Cardinal by Pope Paul VI. At the
time of the 2005 conclave, he was one of only 14 remaining cardinals
appointed by Paul VI, and one of only three of those under the age of 80
and so eligible.
November 25, 1981 Pope John Paul II named Ratzinger prefect of the
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, formerly known as the Holy
Office of the Inquisition, which was renamed in 1908 by Pope Pius X. He
resigned the Munich archdiocese in early 1982, became cardinal-bishop of
Velletri-Segni in 1993, vice-dean of the College of Cardinals in 1998,
and was elected Dean in 2002. In office, Ratzinger usually took
conservative views on topics such as birth control and inter-religious
dialogue. He was closer to John Paul II than any other cardinal, and
Ratzinger and John Paul were called "intellectual bedfellows."