The barrier will go across the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Romeoville, about 30 miles southwest of Chicago.
Asian bighead and silver carp have a voracious appetite and could gobble up the Great Lakes' native fish and their food supplies. The species can reach a length of four feet and weigh 100 pounds.
Rep. Judy Biggert said the fish have made their way up the Mississippi and Illinois rivers to within about 50 miles of Lake Michigan.
Construction on the $6.7 million, underwater electric fence is set to begin July 26. It should be completed this fall.